|Titre :||Breeds, Dynasties, Nations: Austrian Lipizzaners (1580 --), English Thoroughbreds (1686 --), and Edwin Henry Landseer’s The Arab Tent (c .1865 - 1866)|
|fait partie de :|
|Auteurs :||Donna Landry, Auteur|
|Type de document :||document vidéo|
|Année de publication :||2018|
|Format :||19 min.|
EquivocArabe ; Cheval De Sang ; Époque Contemporaine (XIXe-XXIe) ; Époque Moderne (XVIe-XVIIIe) ; Politique ; Pur Sang Anglais
As the term evolved between 1550 and 1850, a ‘breed’ of horse became increasingly inseparable from questions of ideology, sovereignty and national identity. The Austrian Lipizzaner, associated with the Habsburg dynasty, and the English Thoroughbred, produced by peers and gentlemen, illustrate the complexities of iconic equine breed status in their genealogy (‘warm blood’ versus ‘blood horse’), associated character traits, and ynastic or national mode of production. In 1580, Archduke Charles II of Styria founded a stud at Lipica in Lower Styria (now Slovenia) to produce riding and war horses for the Habsburg court; in 1686, the Byerley Turk, the first of three Eastern-bred foundation sires, and one of over 200 horses and mares, was imported from the Ottoman domains. By 1791, with the founding of the General Stud Book, the thoroughly hybrid racehorse of the British Isles was judged to have been sufficiently perfected to constitute an ‘English’ breed, or what economic historians would call a case of import substitution. The eighteenth-century Lipizzaner foundation sires, by contrast, illustrate the continuing preeminence across Continental Europe of the Iberian horse, which was bigger and heavier than Eastern horses, less fleet, and more amenable to the collection and discipline of the manège. These sires included a Spanish horse from the Royal Danish stud, several Neapolitans (Italian horses of Spanish breeding), and two Kladrubers (of principally Spanish bloodlines from a stud in Bohemia). Then Siglavy, a purebred Arabian from Syria, was entered into the stud book early in the nineteenth century. How might we account for this action? There may well have been a shortage of fine Iberian stallions after many years of war. Furthermore, impressed by the qualities of Eastern bloodstock, which were by this time also evident in many English Thoroughbreds, and codified in the General Stud Book, a number of European nations were dispatching agents and procuring parties to Syria and elsewhere in the Middle East ; Bonaparte’s invasion of 1798 supplied Egyptian horses for France.
Although transnational networks and hybridity had produced the Lipizzaner and the Thoroughbred, the concept of Oriental equine ‘purity’ emblematised by the desert Arabian emerged as a nineteenth-century ideal, apotheosised in such works as Edwin Henry Landseer’s The Arab Tent (c. 1865-1866) (Wallace Collection). Siglavy became an important foundation sire. However, attempts to introduce English Thoroughbreds as representatives of ‘clean bred’ bloodstock into the Lipizzaner stud books were not successful. The reputation of the Thoroughbred produced by the racing-mad and fox hunting English (and Irish) as peculiarly ‘difficult’, indeed nearly impossible to ride, also travelled internationally, significantly making an appearance in Miklós Bánffy’s Transylvanian Trilogy (1934-1940), in which an equestrian community proud of their horsemanship and long-established local breeds find themselves struggling to cope with an English Thoroughbred mare.
Predictor of economic value as well as equine character and capabilities, signifier of sovereignty and national differences: however ideologically loaded a construct it may be, ‘breed’ continues to govern the thinking of riders and breeders, who can be relied upon to provide empirical justification for their views.
|En ligne :||oui|
|En ligne :||https://vimeo.com/277447571|